5.5. FTP/FTPS Usage¶
- Available FTP server commands
- FTP command completion code and message
- FTP Data Types - ASCII vs BINARY
- Globbing in FTP commands
- Changing permissions for files and folders
- Changing modification time for files
- Disclosing system type with SYST command
- Data channel usage
- Passive connections (PASV) implementation details
- Active connections (PORT) source address and port
- Restarting a transfer
- UTF-8 support
- Usage of the CCC (Clear Command Channel) command
- Date and time handling
- Listings for Machine Processing (MLST and MLSD)
- SSL certificate-based authentication
- Password-based authentication
- User password change
- Load Balancer
This page contains information about the server-side usage and behaviour of the FTP commands implemented by the FTP service/server.
The FTP/FTPS implementation is designed to follow the RFCs as much as possible and mimic the behaviour found in the VSFTPD implementation without sharing any source code.
Our goal for SFTPPlus is to implement all FTP commands described in dedicated RFC specifications.
Below is a list with currently supported commands. Most commands are defined in the original RFC 959. In RFC 5797 you can check the exact RFC associated with a command.
- APPE Request an upload with appending to existing file.
- AUTH Set up a secure control channel. RFC 4217
- CCC Clear control channel security. RFC 2228 4217
- CDUP Change to the parent directory.
- CLNT Receive name of the client software.
- CWD Change working directory.
- DELE Delete a file.
- EPRT Request an extended active connection. RFC 2428
- EPSV Request an extended passive connection. RFC 2428
- FEAT Advertise the features supported by the server. RFC 2389
- LANG Negotiate language to present server greetings and the textual part of command responses. RFC 2640. Only Enligsh is supported.
- LIST List a directory on the server using a format similar to the Unix ls command.
- MDTM File Modification Time. With support for setting the modification time. RFC 3659
- MFMT Modify Fact: Modification Time. draft-somers-ftp-mfxx-04
- MKD Make a directory on the server.
- MLST Listing for machine processing over the control channel. RFC 3659
- MLSD Listing for machine process over the data channel. RFC 3659
- MODE Set transfer mode. Only the stream mode is supported.
- NLST List only the names of directory members.
- NOOP Does nothing. Used to keep the session alive.
- OPTS Specify options for the command to follow.
- PASS Set the password for authenticating in the current session.
- PASV Request a passive connection.
- PBSZ Negotiate the buffer size for the secure data transfer. Any value is accepted, but ignored. RFC 4217
- PORT Request an active connection.
- PROT Negotiate the data connection security level. RFC 4217
- PWD Print the working directory.
- QUIT Close the session.
- RETR Request a download.
- RMD Remove a directory on the server.
- RNFR First part of a rename request.
- RNTO Second part of a rename request.
- SITE Custom SFTPPlus FTP service command.
- SIZE Return the size of the file. RFC 3659
- STOR Request an upload.
- STRU Define the file structure mode. Only the F - File code is supported.
- SYST Return the system type. Always returns the Unix type to hide server identity.
- TVFS A Trivial Virtual File Store. RFC 3659
- TYPE Define type of file to be transferred. Only the I (binary), A (ASCII), and U (Unicode) types are supported.
- USER Set username for the current session.
- XCUP Obsolete variant for CDUP RFC 775
- XCWD Obsolete variant for CWD RFC 775
- XMKD Obsolete variant for MKD RFC 775
- XPWD Obsolete variant for PWD RFC 775
- XRMD Obsolete variant for RMD RFC 775
The list of available SITE commands is:
- CHMOD change permissions for a target path. Not available on Windows.
- UTIME set the modification timestamp.
- IDLE equivalent to NOOP command
- PSWD change the password for the authenticated user.
For every command requested by the FTP client, SFTPPlus will reply with a completion code and a human readable text.
Based on the FTP standard (RFC 959), well behaved FTP clients should only look at the completion code and ignore the human readable text. The codes are for use by programs and the text is usually intended for human users to review the programs’ activity.
While the completion codes are well documented in the FTP standards, the content of the human readable text is left undocumented.
In SFTPPlus the content of the human readable text is not documented and can’t be configured. To improve compatibility with the FTP clients we try to follow the human readable messages produced by the VSFTPD open source FTP/FTPS server. Please report any inconsistency in the content of the human readable text sent together with the completion codes.
When an operation fails due to a permission or authorization error, SFTPPlus will return error code 553. VSFTPD returns 553 for authorization error (ex upload is completely disabled) and 550 for filesystem permission errors. SFTPPlus uses 553 to make it easier to differentiate a normal file not found error from a permission error.
SFTPPlus supports only the ASCII and IMAGE/BINARY data types.
When no explicit data type is requested by the client-side, the server will consider the data type as IMAGE/BINARY.
The default data type can be changed using the FTP service configuration.
The RFC 959 defines the default type as ASCII but in SFTPPlus the default mode is IMAGE to match the behaviour found for the SFTP and HTTPS, the implementation found in the previous versions of SFTPPlus, and the VSFTPD implementation.
When the IMAGE/BINARY data type is used, files are transferred as they are, without any changes to their content.
When the ASCII data type is used, the source peer will convert any new line delimiters to the standard FTP delimiter CRLF.
In ASCII mode, the SIZE command will return the size of the file as stored on the server and not as transferred with new line conversion as mandated by the RFC 959 for ASCII mode transfers.
This is done to prevent denial of service attack (DoS) and to match the behavior found in the VSFTPD implementation.
Since SFTPPlus is designed as a cross-platform solution, when SFTPPlus is the source of the transfer (for example when responding to the RETR command), it will convert both Unix and Windows new line delimiters to the FTP new line delimiters.
When SFTPPlus acts as the destination of the transfer, it will convert the new lines only when running on Unix-like systems, as the FTP and Windows new line delimiters are the same.
The FTP/FTPS service can be configured to pretend that ASCII mode is provided, but to transfer the actual data based on IMAGE/BINARY mode. For more details, check the configuration section.
SFTPPlus supports globbing / wildcards expressions for both LIST and NLST commands for matching direct member names.
The following wildcards are available:
- * - matches any number of characters
- ? - matches exactly one character
- [ and ] - matches exactly one character from the group of characters listed inside the brackets.
Check the following examples to get a better understanding of globbing and the usage of wildcards.
All examples are based on the following folder structure:
a_file.txt other_extension.file.doc other_file.txt some_empty_folder some_file1.txt some_file11.txt some_file2.txt some_folder some_folder/file2.txt
LIST * will return the following members:
a_file.txt other_extension.file.doc other_file.txt some_empty_folder/ some_file1.txt some_file11.txt some_file2.txt some_folder/
some_folder/file2.txt is excluded from the result, since the match
is not recursive.
LIST some_empty_folder/* will return an empty result set.
Running LIST *.txt will return any file or folder ending with
a_file.txt other_file.txt some_file1.txt some_file11.txt some_file2.txt
Running LIST some_file?.txt will return:
some_file11.txt is excluded from the result since
? matches a
single character only.
LIST [ao]* will return any file or folder starting with
a_file.txt other_extension.file.doc other_file.txt
LIST [bc]* will return an empty result set since no file or
folder starts with
Globbing will not work if applied recursively.
Any of the commands listed below will result in a failure:
ftp> LIST */file* ftp> LIST some_*/file2.txt ftp> NLST som?/*
Both LIST and NLST commands will only list direct (first level) folder members.
On Unix-like systems, the server supports the SITE CHMOD command, which allows changing permissions for a target path.
SITE CHMOD is not specified in the FTP standard and it is not available on Windows, since permissions on Windows are different from those on Unix-like systems.
The syntax for the SITE CHMOD command is:
ftp> SITE CHMOD mode path
where mode is an octal permission mode and path is the targeted path.
To change the permissions to 644 for file
some/file name.txt, the command
ftp> SITE CHMOD 644 some/file name.txt
The server will only consider the significant bits from the requested permissions and ignore any extra bits. This is why setting a mode like 10000644 will succeed.
The MDTM, ‘MFMT’ or SITE UTIME commands can be used for setting the modification time of a file.
The date and time are handed using GMT.
To get the modification time for the file
some/file name.txt, the command
and the response are:
< MDTM some/file name.txt > 213 20160705132316
To change the modification time to the 24th of September 2014 for file
some/file name.txt, the command and the response are:
< MDTM 20160929043300 some/file name.txt > 213 File modification time set. > MFMT 20160929043300 some/file name.txt < 213 Modify=20160929043300; some/file name.txt > SITE UTIME 20160929043300 some/file name.txt < 213 File modification time set.
Modification time can be read and set for files and directories.
Time can also be set using milliseconds by using the input formated as exemplified below:
> MFMT 20160929043300.14312 some/file name.txt < 213 Modify=20160929043300.14312; some/file name.txt
When the SYST command is issued to the server, the FTP client wants to know the operating system type used by the server. To prevent any potential security issue and to keep the operating system anonymous, the server will always respond with a generic UNIX Type: L8 answer.
Based on FTP specifications, all commands are sent using a dedicated command channel. Command responses are sent by the server using the same channel.
All data transfers, including folder listing, are sent over a different data channel. Only a single data channel can be active at any given time.
This is how the FTP implementation behaves when for example it receives both PASV and PORT command for a data channel which was not yet used:
< PASV > 227 Entering Passive Mode (127,0,0,1,35,40). > PORT 127,0,0,1,35,41 FTP COMMAND PAUSE HERE UNTIL PASV REQUEST TIMES OUT < 200 PORT OK < 125 Data connection already open, starting transfer drwxrwxr-x 3 1001 1001 4096 Jul 24 12:00 man
When a data channel is active and the client requests a new data channel, the previous data channel is forcibly closed, even if already connected, and a new data channel is created.
When a client requests the PASV command, SFTPPlus will open the data connection and waits for the client to connect to the new data channel. Unless the client connects to the data channel, no other command is processed.
When the FTP/FTPS service is accessed from behind a NAT, using the standard PASV commands, clients will get a response containing the server internal IP address, rather than the external address used by the NAT server. This is not an implementation error in SFTPPlus, but a design problem of the standard PASV command, which was defined in 1985 in RFC 959.
RFC 2428 was created to solve this problem and it adds EPSV command (extended PASV). Whenever possible, FTP clients are encouraged to use EPSV rather than PASV and EPRT rather than PORT command.
In the case that you have legacy FTP clients without EPSV support to connect to your FTP / FTPS server from behind the NAT, the FTP service configuration provides the passive_address configuration option as a way to work around this problem. For more details please check the FTP service configuration page.
When passive_address is defined and you have FTP clients which connect from the same LAN (not passing the NAT), they will still get the NAT IP address in PASV responses. As a way to get around this, you can create a new FTP service, on a different port, dedicated to internal LAN clients. For this new service, leave the passive_address configuration option empty.
For active connection, an FTP or FTPS server will initiate the data channel connection as a TCP client.
For these connection types, the destination address and port are specified by the client as part of the PORT / EPRT commands.
By default, for these connections, SFTPPlus will use any source address or source port, letting the operating system choose the actual value. Most operating systems will use a port number in the range allocated to the ephemeral ports.
Some (legacy) FTP clients require that all active data channel connections are initiated from port 20 or a different configurable port.
You can also use a single source port in the case when the outgoing traffic should be filtered by the firewall.
SFTPPlus can be configured to use a specific source port number. For more details please check the FTP service configuration page.
Support for restarting an upload/append or download request is provided using the FTP REST command.
After a successful or failed transfer, the offset is always set to 0.
When REST is used together with the APPE command, it will behave just like the STOR command. That is, the data is not appended, but will be stored at the specified offset.
SFTPPlus will always use the UTF-8 encoding for file names and paths.
Support for UTF-8 is advertised by the FTP server in the response of the FEAT command and OPTS UTF8 command is supported as well.
If the server and client support the CCC command, it can be used to revert a control channel connection protected using SSL/TLS to plain text mode, no security.
The usage of the CCC decreases the security of the connection.
Most firewall devices can only inspect unencrypted PASV/PORT commands in order to open the expected data port (port negotiated by server-client) in an automatic manner.
The usage of the CCC can be avoided by defining a static port range for the data connections.
If static port range for the data connection does not meet your requirements, the usage of the CCC command can be used to implement an authentication process which is still secured by TLS/SSL.
In most of the scenarios, the CCC command is used to shut down the SSL/TLS layer after the authentication step. The rest of the control channel communication will be done over an unencrypted connection.
On the server-side, when the CCC command is requested by a client, the SFTPPlus server will always initiate the SSL/TLS shutdown, after the reply is sent to the client. That is, the reply to the CCC command is still sent over a protected connection.
On the client-side, while the CCC command takes no argument, it can be implemented in two modes:
- passive mode - client-side will not initiate the shutdown,
but instead, wait for the server-side to do it. Will not reply to the shutdown from the server
- active mode - not supported yet - client-side initiates the shutdown
and waits for a reply from the server, before sending further commands.
SFTPPlus will display the modified date and time of a file using the format of the Unix ls command.
The date and time are displayed using the server’s local timezone.
Files and folder modified in the current year will have the year omitted and will show the time with a precision of seconds, include hour and seconds.
Here is an example for a file and folder for current year:
-rw-rw-r-- 1 John srv 18 Sep 04 11:26 test_file drwxrwxr-x 2 Mark adm 4096 Aug 13 12:01 remote_get_dir
When the files or folders are modified in the previous years, the result will include the modified year but will omit the time.
Here is an example for a file and folder for previous years:
-rw-rw-r-- 1 John srv 18 Feb 28 2014 test_file drwxrwxr-x 2 Mark adm 4096 Apr 17 2012 remote_get_dir
MLST, MLSD and other commands designed for machine processing will show the time in UTC timezone as specified in the RFCs.
As documented in RFC 3659, the MLST and MLSD commands are intended to standardize the file and directory information returned by the FTP server.
The following facts (file attributes are supported):
- type, with OS.unix=slink for symbolic links.
When MLST is requested, the full path is always displayed.
When MLSD is requested the target directory is displayed with full path, while all members are the target directory are displayed with only their names.
When requesting MLSD for a file, the server will respond with a more specific 550 Requested action not taken: /path is not a directory error, rather than 501 Syntax error in parameters or arguments as documented in the RFC.
SSL certificate-based authentication allows clients to authenticate using username and SSL certificate pair credentials. A password is no longer required in this case.
This applies to both implicit FTPS (FTPIS) and explicit FTPES (FTPES) and is not available for plain FTP.
Note that while the page references SSL certificate authentication, the certification in question is the PKI X.509 certificate format.
If you are intending to generate an X.509 SSL self-signed certificate and/or implementing mutual X.509 SSL authentication using only self-signed certificates please go to the Q and A section for the FTP and FTPS Service.
To enable SSL certificate-based authentication, set the following option inside the FTP/FTPS service configuration section (located by default in configuration/server.ini):
[services/03288e36-cf6b-4bd5-a9be-f421372f17e6] type = ftp name = FTPS Explicit Server ftps_explicit_enabled: Yes enable_ssl_certificate_authentication = Yes
In the Local Manager FTPS services configuration, set to Enable SSL certificate-based authentication.
This option is enabled by default, so you should already have this option set.
FTPS clients who want to authenticate using username and SSL certificate will have to send an SSL certificate signed by an allowed Certificate Authority (CA), as configured by the ssl_certificate_authority configuration option. The SSL certificate presented by the client should have the value of the Common Name (CN) field match the authenticated username.
Each account should have allow_certificate_authentication = yes (Allow SSL certificates` in Local Manager) or enabled by group inheritance.
Based on the following account configuration, SSL certificate authentication
is enabled, and FTPS clients should provide a certificate issued for
[accounts/03288e36-cf6b-4bd5-a9be-f421372f17e6] name = JohnD allow_certificate_authentication = Yes
The CN field and username matching is case-sensitive.
A certificate issued for CN
JohnD will not be valid for an account
johnd (all lowercase).
Setting enable_ssl_certificate_authentication = No will disable SSL-based authentication and accounts will have to authenticate using other methods, like username and password.
After disabling SSL certificate-based authentication, you must check that password-based authentication is enabled. Otherwise, clients will have no other authentication method available to log in:
[services/03288e36-cf6b-4bd5-a9be-f421372f17e6] type = ftpsi name = FTPS Implicit Server enable_ssl_certificate_authentication = No enable_password_authentication = Yes
Password-based authentication is the most common authentication method used with FTP and FTPS.
To enable/disable it use the enable_password_authentication configuration option available for each FTP or FTPS services.
When disabling password authentication, make sure other authentication methods are enabled. For example, the following configuration disables password authentication and enables SSL-based authentication:
[services/03288e36-cf6b-4bd5-a9be-f421372f17e6] name = FTPS Implicit Server type = ftpsi enable_password_authentication = no enable_ssl_certificate_authentication = Yes
You can configure an account to allow updating its own password. When enabled, users can change their password over the FTP and FTPS protocol using the SITE PSWD command.
To change the password, users must provide the current password.
When changing the password, both current and new passwords are provided in text format.
Here is an example of changing the current password correcthorsebatterystaple to new password Ltime@go-inag~faaa!:
SITE PSWD correcthorsebatterystaple Ltime@go-inag~faaa!
If the current or new password contains a space character, both passwords need to be enclosed in double quotes and separated by a single space. The double quotes characters from the password does not need to be escaped in any way:
Here is an example of changing current password Ex1st”n0w” with Wow doestcst. Note that the current password contains double quotes characters:
SITE PSWD "Ex1st"n0w"" "Wow doestcst"
The current or new passwords can’t contain the ” “ string (double quotes followed by one space, followed again by double quotes).
The FTP/FTPS services of SFTPPlus can be integrated in a DNS-based load balancing solution.
FTP/FTPS services can function behind a layer 4 load balancer, as long as only active data connections are used.
SFTPPlus requires no extra configuration when using a layer 4 TCP balancer with active data connections.
When functioning behind a DNS load balancer, each FTP/FTPS node needs to have the passive_ip_address configured to its own IP.
You can’t use a layer 4 TCP load balancer with passive data connections. This is because SFTPPlus server will use 2 independent connections for a passive data connection, one for the FTP command and the other for the FTP data.
With load balancing it is possible that those 2 connections are sometimes directed to 2 different SFTPPlus servers.
For passive data connection we recommend using a DNS load balancer or switch to using the SFTP protocol.
AWS Network Load Balancer and Azure Load Balancer are examples of layer 4 load balancers.